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Public Law 106-229
106th Congress

                                 An Act

To facilitate the use of electronic records and signatures in interstate 
                          or foreign commerce.

<<NOTE: June 30, 2000 -  [S. 761]>>     Be it enacted by the Senate and 
House of Representatives of the United States of America in 
Congress <<NOTE: Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce 
Act. Contracts.>> assembled,

SECTION 1. <<NOTE: 15 USC 7001 note.>> SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Electronic Signatures in Global and 
National Commerce Act''.



    (a) In General.--Notwithstanding any statute, regulation, or other 
rule of law (other than this title and title II), with respect to any 
transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce--
            (1) a signature, contract, or other record relating to such 
        transaction may not be denied legal effect, validity, or 
        enforceability solely because it is in electronic form; and
            (2) a contract relating to such transaction may not be 
        denied legal effect, validity, or enforceability solely because
        an electronic signature or electronic record was used in its 

    (b) Preservation of Rights and Obligations.--This title does not--
            (1) limit, alter, or otherwise affect any requirement 
        imposed by a statute, regulation, or rule of law relating to the 
        rights and obligations of persons under such statute, 
        regulation, or rule of law other than a requirement that 
        contracts or other records be written, signed, or in 
        nonelectronic form; or
            (2) require any person to agree to use or accept electronic 
        records or electronic signatures, other than a governmental 
        agency with respect to a record other than a contract to which 
        it is a party.

    (c) Consumer Disclosures.--
            (1) Consent to electronic records.--Notwithstanding 
        subsection (a), if a statute, regulation, or other rule of law 
        requires that information relating to a transaction or 
        transactions in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce be 
        provided or made available to a consumer in writing, the use of 
        an electronic record to provide or make available (whichever

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        is required) such information satisfies the requirement that 
        such information be in writing if--
                    (A) the consumer has affirmatively consented to such 
                use and has not withdrawn such consent;
                    (B) the consumer, prior to consenting, is provided 
                with a clear and conspicuous statement--
                          (i) informing the consumer of (I) any right or 
                      option of the consumer to have the record provided 
                      or made available on paper or in nonelectronic 
                      form, and (II) the right of the consumer to 
                      withdraw the consent to have the record provided 
                      or made available in an electronic form and of any 
                      conditions, consequences (which may include 
                      termination of the parties' relationship), or fees 
                      in the event of such withdrawal;
                          (ii) informing the consumer of whether the 
                      consent applies (I) only to the particular 
                      transaction which gave rise to the obligation to 
                      provide the record, or (II) to identified 
                      categories of records that may be provided or made 
                      available during the course of the parties' 
                          (iii) describing the procedures the consumer 
                      must use to withdraw consent as provided in clause 
                      (i) and to update information needed to contact 
                      the consumer electronically; and
                          (iv) informing the consumer (I) how, after the 
                      consent, the consumer may, upon request, obtain a 
                      paper copy of an electronic record, and (II) 
                      whether any fee will be charged for such copy;
                    (C) the consumer--
                          (i) prior to consenting, is provided with a 
                      statement of the hardware and software 
                      requirements for access to and retention of the 
                      electronic records; and
                          (ii) consents electronically, or confirms his 
                      or her consent electronically, in a manner that 
                      reasonably demonstrates that the consumer can 
                      access information in the electronic form that 
                      will be used to provide the information that is 
                      the subject of the consent; and
                    (D) after the consent of a consumer in accordance 
                with subparagraph (A), if a change in the hardware or 
                software requirements needed to access or retain 
                electronic records creates a material risk that the 
                consumer will not be able to access or retain a 
                subsequent electronic record that was the subject of the 
                consent, the person providing the electronic record--
                          (i) provides the consumer with a statement of 
                      (I) the revised hardware and software requirements 
                      for access to and retention of the electronic 
                      records, and (II) the right to withdraw consent 
                      without the imposition of any fees for such 
                      withdrawal and without the imposition of any 
                      condition or consequence that was not disclosed 
                      under subparagraph (B)(i); and
                          (ii) again complies with subparagraph (C).
            (2) Other rights.--
                    (A) Preservation of consumer protections.--Nothing 
                in this title affects the content or timing of any 
                disclosure or other record required to be provided or 

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                available to any consumer under any statute, regulation, 
                or other rule of law.
                    (B) Verification or acknowledgment.--If a law that 
                was enacted prior to this Act expressly requires a 
                record to be provided or made available by a specified 
                method that requires verification or acknowledgment of 
                receipt, the record may be provided or made available 
                electronically only if the method used provides 
                verification or acknowledgment of receipt (whichever is 
            (3) Effect of failure to obtain electronic consent or 
        confirmation of consent.--The legal effectiveness, validity, or 
        enforceability of any contract executed by a consumer shall not 
        be denied solely because of the failure to obtain electronic 
        consent or confirmation of consent by that consumer in 
        accordance with paragraph (1)(C)(ii).
            (4) Prospective effect.--Withdrawal of consent by a consumer 
        shall not affect the legal effectiveness, validity, or 
        enforceability of electronic records provided or made available 
        to that consumer in accordance with paragraph (1) prior to 
        implementation of the consumer's withdrawal of consent. A 
        consumer's withdrawal of consent shall be effective within a 
        reasonable period of time after receipt of the withdrawal by the 
        provider of the record. Failure to comply with paragraph (1)(D) 
        may, at the election of the consumer, be treated as a withdrawal 
        of consent for purposes of this paragraph.
            (5) Prior consent.--This subsection does not apply to any 
        records that are provided or made available to a consumer who 
        has consented prior to the effective date of this title to 
        receive such records in electronic form as permitted by any 
        statute, regulation, or other rule of law.
            (6) Oral communications.--An oral communication or a 
        recording of an oral communication shall not qualify as an 
        electronic record for purposes of this subsection except as 
        otherwise provided under applicable law.

    (d) Retention of Contracts and Records.--
            (1) Accuracy and accessibility.--If a statute, regulation, 
        or other rule of law requires that a contract or other record 
        relating to a transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign 
        commerce be retained, that requirement is met by retaining an 
        electronic record of the information in the contract or other 
        record that--
                    (A) accurately reflects the information set forth in 
                the contract or other record; and
                    (B) remains accessible to all persons who are 
                entitled to access by statute, regulation, or rule of 
                law, for the period required by such statute, 
                regulation, or rule of law, in a form that is capable of 
                being accurately reproduced for later reference, whether 
                by transmission, printing, or otherwise.
            (2) Exception.--A requirement to retain a contract or other 
        record in accordance with paragraph (1) does not apply to any 
        information whose sole purpose is to enable the contract or 
        other record to be sent, communicated, or received.
            (3) Originals.--If a statute, regulation, or other rule of 
        law requires a contract or other record relating to a 
        transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce to be 

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        available, or retained in its original form, or provides 
        consequences if the contract or other record is not provided, 
        available, or retained in its original form, that statute, 
        regulation, or rule of law is satisfied by an electronic record 
        that complies with paragraph (1).
            (4) Checks.--If a statute, regulation, or other rule of law 
        requires the retention of a check, that requirement is satisfied 
        by retention of an electronic record of the information on the 
        front and back of the check in accordance with paragraph (1).

    (e) Accuracy and Ability To Retain Contracts and Other Records.--
Notwithstanding subsection (a), if a statute, regulation, or other rule 
of law requires that a contract or other record relating to a 
transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce be in 
writing, the legal effect, validity, or enforceability of an electronic 
record of such contract or other record may be denied if such electronic 
record is not in a form that is capable of being retained and accurately 
reproduced for later reference by all parties or persons who are 
entitled to retain the contract or other record.
    (f) Proximity.--Nothing in this title affects the proximity required 
by any statute, regulation, or other rule of law with respect to any 
warning, notice, disclosure, or other record required to be posted, 
displayed, or publicly affixed.
    (g) Notarization and Acknowledgment.--If a statute, regulation, or 
other rule of law requires a signature or record relating to a 
transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce to be 
notarized, acknowledged, verified, or made under oath, that requirement
is satisfied if the electronic signature of the person authorized to 
perform those acts, together with all other information required to be 
included by other applicable statute, regulation, or rule of law, is 
attached to or logically associated with the signature or record.
    (h) Electronic Agents.--A contract or other record relating to a 
transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce may not be 
denied legal effect, validity, or enforceability solely because its 
formation, creation, or delivery involved the action of one or more 
electronic agents so long as the action of any such electronic agent is 
legally attributable to the person to be bound.
    (i) Insurance.--It <<NOTE: Applicability.>> is the specific intent 
of the Congress that this title and title II apply to the business of 

    (j) Insurance Agents and Brokers.--An insurance agent or broker 
acting under the direction of a party that enters into a contract by 
means of an electronic record or electronic signature may not be held 
liable for any deficiency in the electronic procedures agreed to by the 
parties under that contract if--
            (1) the agent or broker has not engaged in negligent, 
        reckless, or intentional tortious conduct;
            (2) the agent or broker was not involved in the development 
        or establishment of such electronic procedures; and
            (3) the agent or broker did not deviate from such 


    (a) In General.--A State statute, regulation, or other rule of law 
may modify, limit, or supersede the provisions of section 101 with 
respect to State law only if such statute, regulation, or rule of law--

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            (1) constitutes an enactment or adoption of the Uniform 
        Electronic Transactions Act as approved and recommended for 
        enactment in all the States by the National Conference of 
        Commissioners on Uniform State Laws in 1999, except that any 
        exception to the scope of such Act enacted by a State under 
        section 3(b)(4) of such Act shall be preempted to the extent 
        such exception is inconsistent with this title or title II, or 
        would not be permitted under paragraph (2)(A)(ii) of this 
        subsection; or
            (2)(A) specifies the alternative procedures or requirements 
        for the use or acceptance (or both) of electronic records or 
        electronic signatures to establish the legal effect, validity, 
        or enforceability of contracts or other records, if--
                    (i) such alternative procedures or requirements are 
                consistent with this title and title II; and
                    (ii) such alternative procedures or requirements do 
                not require, or accord greater legal status or effect 
                to, the implementation or application of a specific 
                technology or technical specification for performing the 
                functions of creating, storing, generating, receiving, 
                communicating, or authenticating electronic records or 
                electronic signatures; and
            (B) if enacted or adopted after the date of the enactment of 
        this Act, makes specific reference to this Act.

    (b) Exceptions for Actions by States as Market Participants.--
Subsection (a)(2)(A)(ii) shall not apply to the statutes, regulations, 
or other rules of law governing procurement by any State, or any agency 
or instrumentality thereof.
    (c) Prevention of Circumvention.--Subsection (a) does not permit a 
State to circumvent this title or title II through the imposition of 
nonelectronic delivery methods under section 8(b)(2) of the Uniform 
Electronic Transactions Act.


    (a) Excepted Requirements.--The provisions of section 101 shall not 
apply to a contract or other record to the extent it is governed by--
            (1) a statute, regulation, or other rule of law governing 
        the creation and execution of wills, codicils, or testamentary 
            (2) a State statute, regulation, or other rule of law 
        governing adoption, divorce, or other matters of family law; or
            (3) the Uniform Commercial Code, as in effect in any State, 
        other than sections 1-107 and 1-206 and Articles 2 and 2A.

    (b) Additional Exceptions.--The provisions of section 101 shall not 
apply to--
            (1) court orders or notices, or official court documents 
        (including briefs, pleadings, and other writings) required to be 
        executed in connection with court proceedings;
            (2) any notice of--
                    (A) the cancellation or termination of utility 
                services (including water, heat, and power);
                    (B) default, acceleration, repossession, 
                foreclosure, or eviction, or the right to cure, under a 
                credit agreement secured by, or a rental agreement for, 
                a primary residence of an individual;

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                    (C) the cancellation or termination of health 
                insurance or benefits or life insurance benefits 
                (excluding annuities); or
                    (D) recall of a product, or material failure of a 
                product, that risks endangering health or safety; or
            (3) any document required to accompany any transportation or 
        handling of hazardous materials, pesticides, or other toxic or 
        dangerous materials.

    (c) Review of Exceptions.--
            (1) Evaluation required.--The Secretary of Commerce, acting 
        through the Assistant Secretary for Communications and 
        Information, shall review the operation of the exceptions in 
        subsections (a) and (b) to evaluate, over a period of 3 years, 
        whether such exceptions continue to be necessary for the 
        protection of consumers. <<NOTE: Deadline. Reports.>> Within 3 
        years after the date of enactment of this Act, the Assistant 
        Secretary shall submit a report to the Congress on the results 
        of such evaluation.
            (2) Determinations.--If a Federal regulatory agency, with 
        respect to matter within its jurisdiction, determines after 
        notice and an opportunity for public comment, and publishes a 
        finding, that one or more such exceptions are no longer 
        necessary for the protection of consumers and eliminating such 
        exceptions will not increase the material risk of harm to 
        consumers, such agency may extend the application of section 101 
        to the exceptions identified in such finding.


    (a) Filing and Access Requirements.--Subject to subsection (c)(2), 
nothing in this title limits or supersedes any requirement by a Federal 
regulatory agency, self-regulatory organization, or State regulatory 
agency that records be filed with such agency or organization in 
accordance with specified standards or formats.
    (b) Preservation of Existing Rulemaking Authority.--
            (1) Use of authority to interpret.--Subject to paragraph (2) 
        and subsection (c), a Federal regulatory agency or State
        regulatory agency that is responsible for rulemaking under any 
        other statute may interpret section 101 with respect to such 
        statute through--
                    (A) the issuance of regulations pursuant to a 
                statute; or
                    (B) to the extent such agency is authorized by 
                statute to issue orders or guidance, the issuance of 
                orders or guidance of general applicability that are 
                publicly available and published (in the Federal 
                Register in the case of an order or guidance issued by a 
                Federal regulatory agency).
        This paragraph does not grant any Federal regulatory agency or 
        State regulatory agency authority to issue regulations, orders, 
        or guidance pursuant to any statute that does not authorize such 
            (2) Limitations on interpretation authority.--
        Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a Federal regulatory agency shall 
        not adopt any regulation, order, or guidance described in 
        paragraph (1), and a State regulatory agency is preempted by 
        section 101 from adopting any regulation, order, or guidance 
        described in paragraph (1), unless--
                    (A) such regulation, order, or guidance is 
                consistent with section 101;

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                    (B) such regulation, order, or guidance does not add 
                to the requirements of such section; and
                    (C) such agency finds, in connection with the 
                issuance of such regulation, order, or guidance, that--
                          (i) there is a substantial justification for 
                      the regulation, order, or guidance;
                          (ii) the methods selected to carry out that 
                                    (I) are substantially equivalent to 
                                the requirements imposed on records that 
                                are not electronic records; and
                                    (II) will not impose unreasonable 
                                costs on the acceptance and use of 
                                electronic records; and
                          (iii) the methods selected to carry out that 
                      purpose do not require, or accord greater legal 
                      status or effect to, the implementation or 
                      application of a specific technology or technical 
                      specification for performing the functions of 
                      creating, storing, generating, receiving, 
                      communicating, or authenticating electronic 
                      records or electronic signatures.
            (3) Performance standards.--
                    (A) Accuracy, record integrity, accessibility.--
                Notwithstanding paragraph (2)(C)(iii), a Federal 
                regulatory agency or State regulatory agency may 
                interpret section 101(d) to specify performance 
                standards to assure accuracy, record integrity, and 
                accessibility of records that are required to be 
                retained. Such performance standards may be specified in 
                a manner that imposes a requirement in violation of 
                paragraph (2)(C)(iii) if the requirement (i) serves an 
                important governmental objective; and (ii) is 
                substantially related to the achievement of that 
                objective. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed 
                to grant any Federal regulatory agency or State 
                regulatory agency authority to require use of a 
                particular type of software or hardware in order to 
                comply with section 101(d).
                    (B) Paper or printed form.--Notwithstanding 
                subsection (c)(1), a Federal regulatory agency or State 
                regulatory agency may interpret section 101(d) to 
                retention of a record in a tangible printed or paper 
                form if--
                          (i) there is a compelling governmental 
                      interest relating to law enforcement or national 
                      security for imposing such requirement; and
                          (ii) imposing such requirement is essential to 
                      attaining such interest.
            (4) Exceptions for actions by government as market 
        participant.--Paragraph (2)(C)(iii) shall not apply to the 
        statutes, regulations, or other rules of law governing 
        procurement by the Federal or any State government, or any 
        agency or instrumentality thereof.

    (c) Additional Limitations.--
            (1) Reimposing paper prohibited.--Nothing in subsection (b) 
        (other than paragraph (3)(B) thereof) shall be construed to 
        grant any Federal regulatory agency or State regulatory agency 
        authority to impose or reimpose any requirement that a record be 
        in a tangible printed or paper form.

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            (2) Continuing obligation under government paperwork 
        elimination act.--Nothing in subsection (a) or (b) relieves any 
        Federal regulatory agency of its obligations under the 
        Government Paperwork Elimination Act (title XVII of Public Law 

    (d) Authority To Exempt From Consent Provision.--
            (1) In general.--A Federal regulatory agency may, with
        respect to matter within its jurisdiction, by regulation or 
        order issued after notice and an opportunity for public comment, 
        exempt without condition a specified category or type of record 
        from the requirements relating to consent in section 101(c) if 
        such exemption is necessary to eliminate a substantial burden on 
        electronic commerce and will not increase the material risk of 
        harm to consumers.
            (2) Prospectuses.--
        Within <<NOTE: Deadline. Regulations.>> 30 days after the date 
        of enactment of this Act, the Securities and Exchange Commission 
        shall issue a regulation or order pursuant to paragraph (1) 
        exempting from section 101(c) any records that are required to 
        be provided in order to allow advertising, sales literature, or 
        other information concerning a security issued by an investment 
        company that is registered under the Investment Company Act of 
        1940, or concerning the issuer thereof, to be excluded from the 
        definition of a prospectus under section 2(a)(10)(A) of the 
        Securities Act of 1933.

    (e) Electronic Letters of Agency.--The Federal Communications 
Commission shall not hold any contract for telecommunications service or 
letter of agency for a preferred carrier change, that otherwise complies 
with the Commission's rules, to be legally ineffective, invalid, or 
unenforceable solely because an electronic record or electronic 
signature was used in its formation or authorization.

SEC. 105. <<NOTE: Deadlines. 15 USC 7005.>> STUDIES.

    (a) Delivery.--Within <<NOTE: Mail.>> 12 months after the date of 
the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Commerce shall conduct an 
inquiry regarding the effectiveness of the delivery of electronic 
records to consumers using electronic mail as compared with delivery of 
written records via the United States Postal Service and private express 
mail services. <<NOTE: Reports.>> The Secretary shall submit a report to 
the Congress regarding the results of such inquiry by the conclusion of 
such 12-month period.

    (b) Study of <<NOTE: Reports.>> Electronic Consent.--Within 12 
months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of 
Commerce and the Federal Trade Commission shall submit a report to the 
Congress evaluating any benefits provided to consumers by the procedure 
required by section 101(c)(1)(C)(ii); any burdens imposed on electronic 
commerce by that provision; whether the benefits outweigh the burdens; 
whether the absence of the procedure required by section 
101(c)(1)(C)(ii) would increase the incidence of fraud directed against 
consumers; and suggesting any revisions to the provision deemed 
appropriate by the Secretary and the Commission. <<NOTE: Public 
information.>> In conducting this evaluation, the Secretary and the 
Commission shall solicit comment from the general public, consumer 
representatives, and electronic commerce businesses.

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SEC. 106. <<NOTE: 15 USC 7006.>> DEFINITIONS.

    For purposes of this title:
            (1) Consumer.--The term ``consumer'' means an individual who 
        obtains, through a transaction, products or services which are 
        used primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, and 
        also means the legal representative of such an individual.
            (2) Electronic.--The term ``electronic'' means relating to 
        technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, 
        optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities.
            (3) Electronic agent.--The term ``electronic agent'' means a 
        computer program or an electronic or other automated means used 
        independently to initiate an action or respond to electronic 
        records or performances in whole or in part without review or 
        action by an individual at the time of the action or response.
            (4) Electronic record.--The term ``electronic record'' means 
        a contract or other record created, generated, sent, 
        communicated, received, or stored by electronic means.
            (5) Electronic signature.--The term ``electronic signature'' 
        means an electronic sound, symbol, or process, attached to or 
        logically associated with a contract or other record and 
        executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the 
            (6) Federal regulatory agency.--The term ``Federal 
        regulatory agency'' means an agency, as that term is defined in 
        section 552(f) of title 5, United States Code.
            (7) Information.--The term ``information'' means data, text, 
        images, sounds, codes, computer programs, software, databases, 
        or the like.
            (8) Person.--The term ``person'' means an individual, 
        corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited 
        liability company, association, joint venture, governmental 
        agency, public corporation, or any other legal or commercial 
            (9) Record.--The term ``record'' means information that is 
        inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an 
        electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable 
            (10) Requirement.--The term ``requirement'' includes a 
            (11) Self-regulatory organization.--The term ``self-
        regulatory organization'' means an organization or entity that 
        is not a Federal regulatory agency or a State, but that is under 
        the supervision of a Federal regulatory agency and is authorized 
        under Federal law to adopt and administer rules applicable to 
        its members that are enforced by such organization or entity, by 
        a Federal regulatory agency, or by another self-regulatory 
            (12) State.--The term ``State'' includes the District of 
        Columbia and the territories and possessions of the United 
            (13) Transaction.--The term ``transaction'' means an action 
        or set of actions relating to the conduct of business, consumer, 
        or commercial affairs between two or more persons, including any 
        of the following types of conduct--
                    (A) the sale, lease, exchange, licensing, or other 
                disposition of (i) personal property, including goods 
                and intangibles, (ii) services, and (iii) any 
                combination thereof; and

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                    (B) the sale, lease, exchange, or other disposition 
                of any interest in real property, or any combination 

SEC. 107. <<NOTE: 15 USC 7001 note.>> EFFECTIVE DATE.

    (a) In General.--Except as provided in subsection (b), this title 
shall be effective on October 1, 2000.
    (b) Exceptions.--
            (1) Record retention.--
                    (A) In general.--Subject to subparagraph (B), this 
                title shall be effective on March 1, 2001, with respect 
                to a requirement that a record be retained imposed by--
                          (i) a Federal statute, regulation, or other 
                      rule of law, or
                          (ii) a State statute, regulation, or other
                      rule of law administered or promulgated by a State 
                      regulatory agency.
                    (B) Delayed effect for pending rulemakings.--If on 
                March 1, 2001, a Federal regulatory agency or State 
                regulatory agency has announced, proposed, or initiated, 
                but not completed, a rulemaking proceeding to prescribe 
                a regulation under section 104(b)(3) with respect to a 
                requirement described in subparagraph (A), this title 
                shall be effective on June 1, 2001, with respect to such 
            (2) Certain guaranteed and insured loans.--With regard to 
        any transaction involving a loan guarantee or loan guarantee 
        commitment (as those terms are defined in section 502 of the 
        Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990), or involving a program 
        listed in the Federal Credit Supplement, Budget of the United 
        States, FY 2001, this title applies only to such transactions 
        entered into, and to any loan or mortgage made, insured, or 
        guaranteed by the United States Government thereunder, on and 
        after one year after the date of enactment of this Act.
            (3) Student loans.--With respect to any records that are 
        provided or made available to a consumer pursuant to an 
        application for a loan, or a loan made, pursuant to title IV of 
        the Higher Education Act of 1965, section 101(c) of this Act 
        shall not apply until the earlier of--
                    (A) such time as the Secretary of Education 
                publishes revised promissory notes under section 432(m) 
                of the Higher Education Act of 1965; or
                    (B) one year after the date of enactment of this 



    (a) Definitions.--For purposes of this section:
            (1) Transferable record.--The term ``transferable record'' 
        means an electronic record that--
                    (A) would be a note under Article 3 of the Uniform 
                Commercial Code if the electronic record were in 
                    (B) the issuer of the electronic record expressly 
                has agreed is a transferable record; and
                    (C) relates to a loan secured by real property.

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        A transferable record may be executed using an electronic 
            (2) Other definitions.--The terms ``electronic record'', 
        ``electronic signature'', and ``person'' have the same meanings 
        provided in section 106 of this Act.

    (b) Control.--A person has control of a transferable record if a 
system employed for evidencing the transfer of interests in the 
transferable record reliably establishes that person as the person to 
which the transferable record was issued or transferred.
    (c) Conditions.--A system satisfies subsection (b), and a person is 
deemed to have control of a transferable record, if the transferable 
record is created, stored, and assigned in such a manner that--
            (1) a single authoritative copy of the transferable record 
        exists which is unique, identifiable, and, except as otherwise 
        provided in paragraphs (4), (5), and (6), unalterable;
            (2) the authoritative copy identifies the person asserting 
        control as--
                    (A) the person to which the transferable record was 
                issued; or
                    (B) if the authoritative copy indicates that the 
                transferable record has been transferred, the person to 
                which the transferable record was most recently 
            (3) the authoritative copy is communicated to and maintained 
        by the person asserting control or its designated custodian;
            (4) copies or revisions that add or change an identified 
        assignee of the authoritative copy can be made only with the 
        consent of the person asserting control;
            (5) each copy of the authoritative copy and any copy of a 
        copy is readily identifiable as a copy that is not the 
        authoritative copy; and
            (6) any revision of the authoritative copy is readily 
        identifiable as authorized or unauthorized.

    (d) Status as Holder.--Except as otherwise agreed, a person having 
control of a transferable record is the holder, as defined in section 1-
201(20) of the Uniform Commercial Code, of the transferable record and 
has the same rights and defenses as a holder of an equivalent record or 
writing under the Uniform Commercial Code, including, if the applicable 
statutory requirements under section 3-302(a), 9-308, or revised section 
9-330 of the Uniform Commercial Code are satisfied, the rights and 
defenses of a holder in due course or a purchaser, respectively. 
Delivery, possession, and endorsement are not required to obtain or 
exercise any of the rights under this subsection.
    (e) Obligor Rights.--Except as otherwise agreed, an obligor under a 
transferable record has the same rights and defenses as an equivalent 
obligor under equivalent records or writings under the Uniform 
Commercial Code.
    (f) Proof of Control.--If requested by a person against which 
enforcement is sought, the person seeking to enforce the transferable 
record shall provide reasonable proof that the person is in control of 
the transferable record. Proof may include access to the authoritative 
copy of the transferable record and related business records sufficient 
to review the terms of the transferable record and to establish the 
identity of the person having control of the transferable record.

[[Page 114 STAT. 475]]

    (g) UCC References.--For purposes of this subsection, all references 
to the Uniform Commercial Code are to the Uniform Commercial Code as in 
effect in the jurisdiction the law of which governs the transferable 

SEC. 202. <<NOTE: 15 USC 7021 note.>> EFFECTIVE DATE.

    This title shall be effective 90 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act.



    (a) Promotion of Electronic Signatures.--
            (1) Required actions.--The Secretary of Commerce shall 
        promote the acceptance and use, on an international basis, of 
        electronic signatures in accordance with the principles 
        specified in paragraph (2) and in a manner consistent with 
        section 101 of this Act. The Secretary of Commerce shall take 
        all actions necessary in a manner consistent with such 
        principles to eliminate or reduce, to the maximum extent 
        possible, the impediments to commerce in electronic signatures, 
        for the purpose of facilitating the development of interstate 
        and foreign commerce.
            (2) Principles.--The principles specified in this paragraph 
        are the following:
                    (A) Remove paper-based obstacles to electronic 
                transactions by adopting relevant principles from the 
                Model Law on Electronic Commerce adopted in 1996 by the 
                United Nations Commission on International Trade Law.
                    (B) Permit parties to a transaction to determine the 
                appropriate authentication technologies and 
                implementation models for their transactions, with 
                assurance that those technologies and implementation 
                models will be recognized and enforced.
                    (C) Permit parties to a transaction to have the 
                opportunity to prove in court or other proceedings that 
                their authentication approaches and their transactions 
                are valid.
                    (D) Take a nondiscriminatory approach to electronic 
                signatures and authentication methods from other 

    (b) Consultation.--In conducting the activities required by this 
section, the Secretary shall consult with users and providers of 
electronic signature products and services and other interested persons.
    (c) Definitions.--As used in this section, the terms ``electronic 
record'' and ``electronic signature'' have the same meanings provided in 
section 106 of this Act.

[[Page 114 STAT. 476]]



    Section 1405 of the Child Online Protection Act (47 U.S.C. 231 note) 
is amended by inserting after subsection (g) the following new 
    ``(h) Gifts, Bequests, and Devises.--The Commission may accept, use, 
and dispose of gifts, bequests, or devises of services or property, both 
real (including the use of office space) and personal, for the purpose 
of aiding or facilitating the work of the Commission. Gifts or grants 
not used at the termination of the Commission shall be returned to the 
donor or grantee.''.

    Approved June 30, 2000.

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